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  • Preparation and characterization of AlN seeds for homogeneous growth

    Li Zhang, Haitao Qi, Hongjuan Cheng, Lei Jin, Yuezeng Shi

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Large size AlN bulk crystal has been grown on SiC heterogeneous seed by physical vapor transport (PVT). The properties of AlN wafer were characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), Raman spectroscopy, etched method and atomic force microscope (AFM). Growth mechanism of AlN crystal grown on heterogeneous SiC seeds was proposed. Crystallization quality of AlN samples were improved with the growth process, which is associated with the growth mechanism. AlN single wafer has excellent crystallization quality, which is indicated by HRXRD showing the (0002), (\begin{document}$10\bar 1 2$\end{document}) XRD FWHM of 76.3, 52.5 arcsec, respectively. The surface of the AlN wafer is measured by AFM with a roughness (Ra) of 0.15 nm, which is a promising seed for AlN homogeneous growth.

  • Recent progress of SiC UV single photon counting avalanche photodiodes

    Linlin Su, Dong Zhou, Hai Lu, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    4H-SiC single photon counting avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) are prior devices for weak ultraviolet (UV) signal detection with the advantages of small size, low leakage current, high avalanche multiplication gain, and high quantum efficiency, which benefit from the large bandgap energy, high carrier drift velocity and excellent physical stability of 4H-SiC semiconductor material. UV detectors are widely used in many key applications, such as missile plume detection, corona discharge, UV astronomy, and biological and chemical agent detection. In this paper, we will describe basic concepts and review recent results on device design, process development, and basic characterizations of 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes. Several promising device structures and uniformity of avalanche multiplication are discussed, which are important for achieving high performance of 4H-SiC UV SPADs.

  • III–V ternary nanowires on Si substrates: growth, characterization and device applications

    Giorgos Boras, Xuezhe Yu, Huiyun Liu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Over the past decades, the progress in the growth of materials which can be applied to cutting-edge technologies in the field of electronics, optoelectronics and energy harvesting has been remarkable. Among the various materials, group III–V semiconductors are of particular interest and have been widely investigated due to their excellent optical properties and high carrier mobility. However, the integration of III–V structures as light sources and numerous other optical components on Si, which is the foundation for most optoelectronic and electronic integrated circuits, has been hindered by the large lattice mismatch between these compounds. This mismatch results in substantial amounts of strain and degradation of the performance of the devices. Nanowires (NWs) are unique nanostructures that induce elastic strain relaxation, allowing for the monolithic integration of III–V semiconductors on the cheap and mature Si platform. A technique that ensures flexibility and freedom in the design of NW structures is the growth of ternary III–V NWs, which offer a tuneable frame of optical characteristics, merely by adjusting their nominal composition. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress in the growth of ternary III–V NWs on Si substrates. After analysing the growth mechanisms that are being employed and describing the effect of strain in the NW growth, we will thoroughly inspect the available literature and present the growth methods, characterization and optical measurements of each of the III–V ternary alloys that have been demonstrated. The different properties and special treatments required for each of these material platforms are also discussed. Moreover, we will present the results from the works on device fabrication, including lasers, solar cells, water splitting devices, photodetectors and FETs, where ternary III–V NWs were used as building blocks. Through the current paper, we exhibit the up-to-date state in this field of research and summarize the important accomplishments of the past few years.

  • Dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on Ge or Si substrate

    Cheng Wang, Yueguang Zhou

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Growing semiconductor laser sources on silicon is a crucial but challenging technology for developing photonic integrated circuits (PICs). InAs/GaAs quantum dot (Qdot) lasers have successfully circumvented the mismatch problem between III–V materials and Ge or Si, and have demonstrated efficient laser emission. In this paper, we review dynamical characteristics of Qdot lasers epitaxially grown on Ge or Si, in comparison with those of Qdot lasers on native GaAs substrate. We discuss properties of linewidth broadening factor, laser noise and its sensitivity to optical feedback, intensity modulation, as well as mode locking operation. The investigation of these dynamical characteristics is beneficial for guiding the design of PICs in optical communications and optical computations.

  • Simulation of structural design with high coupling efficiency in external cavity semiconductor laser

    Yangjie Zhang, Wentao Guo, Di Xiong, Xiaofeng Guo, Wenyuan Liao, Haifeng Liu, Weihua Liu, Manqing Tan

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    For external cavity semiconductor lasers (ECSLs), high coupling efficiency is critical to reducing the linewidth. In this paper, the coupling efficiency between the laser diode and the waveguide grating has been improved, with proposals for its improvement presented, including adding spot-size conversion (SSC) and using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. The results indicate an increase of coupling efficiency from 41.5% to 93.1%, which exhibits an improvement of approximately 51.6% over conventional schemes. The relationship between coupling efficiency and SOI waveguide structures is mainly concerned in this article. These findings provide a new way for the future research of the narrow linewidth of ECSL.

  • One-pot preparation and applications ofself-healing, self-adhesive PAA-PDMS elastomers

    Yujin Yao, Huiling Tai, Dongsheng Wang, Yadong Jiang, Zhen Yuan, Yonghao Zheng

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    A new family of transparent, biocompatible, self-adhesive, and self-healing elastomer has been developed by a convenient and efficient one-pot reaction between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH). The condensation reaction between PAA and PDMS-OH has been confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra. The prepared PAA-PDMS elastomers possess robust mechanical strength and strong adhesiveness to human skin, and they have fast self-healing ability at room temperature (in ~10 s with the efficiency of 98%). Specifically, strain sensors were fabricated by assembling PAA-PDMS as packaging layers and polyetherimide-reduced graphene oxide (PEI-rGO) as strain-sensing layers. The PAA-PDMS/PEI-rGO sensors are stably and reliably responsive to slight physical deformations, and they can be attached onto skin directly to monitor the body’s motions. Meanwhile, strain sensors can self-heal quickly and completely, and they can be reused for the motion detecting after shallowly scratching the surface. This work provides new opportunities to manufacture high performance self-adhesive and self-healing materials.

  • III–V compound materials and lasers on silicon

    Wenyu Yang, Yajie Li, Fangyuan Meng, Hongyan Yu, Mengqi Wang, Pengfei Wang, Guangzhen Luo, Xuliang Zhou, Jiaoqing Pan

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Silicon-based photonic integration has attracted the interest of semiconductor scientists because it has high luminous efficiency and electron mobility. Breakthroughs have been made in silicon-based integrated lasers over the past few decades. Here we review three main methods of integration of III–V materials on Si, namely direct growth, bonding, and selective-area hetero-epitaxy. The III–V materials we introduced mainly include materials such as GaAs and InP. The lasers are mainly lasers of related communication bands. We also introduced the advantages and challenges of the three methods.

  • A contrivance of 277 nm DUV LD with B0.313Ga0.687N/B0.40Ga0.60N QWs and AlxGa1–xN heterojunction grown on AlN substrate

    Mussaab I. Niass, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Yifu Wang, Zhengqian Lu, Xue Chen, Yipu Qu, Zhongqiu Du, Fang Wang, Yuhuai Liu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper, an ultraviolet C-band laser diode lasing at 277 nm composed of B0.313Ga0.687N/B0.40Ga0.60N QW/QB heterostructure on Mg and Si-doped AlxGa1–xN layers was designed, as well as a lowest reported substitutional accepter and donor concentration up to NA = 5.0 × 1017 cm–3 and ND = 9.0 × 1016 cm–3 for deep ultraviolet lasing was achieved. The structure was assumed to be grown over bulk AlN substrate and operate under a continuous wave at room temperature. Although there is an emphasizing of the suitability for using boron nitride wide band gap in the deep ultraviolet region, there is still a shortage of investigation about the ternary BGaN in aluminum-rich AlGaN alloys. Based on the simulation, an average local gain in quantum wells of 1946 cm–1, the maximum emitted power of 2.4 W, the threshold current of 500 mA, a slope efficiency of 1.91 W/A as well as an average DC resistance for the VI curve of (0.336 Ω) had been observed. Along with an investigation regarding different EBL, designs were included with tapered and inverse tapered structure. Therefore, it had been found a good agreement with the published results for tapered EBL design, with an overweighting for a proposed inverse tapered EBL design.

  • Improved efficiency and photo-stability of methylamine-free perovskite solar cells via cadmium doping

    Yong Chen, Yang Zhao, Qiufeng Ye, Zema Chu, Zhigang Yin, Xingwang Zhang, Jingbi You

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Although perovskite solar cells containing methylamine cation can show high power conversion efficiency, stability is a concern. Here, methylamine-free perovskite material CsxFA1–xPbI3 was synthesized by a one-step method. In addition, we incorporated smaller cadmium ions into mixed perovskite lattice to partially replace Pb ions to address the excessive internal strain in perovskite structure. We have found that the introduction of Cd can improve the crystallinity and the charge carrier lifetime of perovskite films. Consequently, a power conversion efficiency as high as 20.59% was achieved. More importantly, the devices retained 94% of their initial efficiency under 1200 h of continuous illumination.

  • Recent progress in epitaxial growth of III–V quantum-dot lasers on silicon substrate

    Shujie Pan, Victoria Cao, Mengya Liao, Ying Lu, Zizhuo Liu, Mingchu Tang, Siming Chen, Alwyn Seeds, Huiyun Liu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In the past few decades, numerous high-performance silicon (Si) photonic devices have been demonstrated. Si, as a photonic platform, has received renewed interest in recent years. Efficient Si-based III–V quantum-dot (QDs) lasers have long been a goal for semiconductor scientists because of the incomparable optical properties of III–V compounds. Although the material dissimilarity between III–V material and Si hindered the development of monolithic integrations for over 30 years, considerable breakthroughs happened in the 2000s. In this paper, we review recent progress in the epitaxial growth of various III–V QD lasers on both offcut Si substrate and on-axis Si (001) substrate. In addition, the fundamental challenges in monolithic growth will be explained together with the superior characteristics of QDs.

  • Silicon polarization switch based on symmetric polarization splitter-rotators

    Defen Guo, Kang Hou, Weijie Tang, Tao Chu

    , Available online

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/10/100401

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

  • Contact etch process optimization for RF process wafer edge yield improvement

    Zhangli Liu, Bingkui He, Fei Meng, Qiang Bao, Yuhong Sun, Shaojun Sun, Guangwei Zhou, Xiuliang Cao, Haiwei Xin

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Radio-frequency (RF) process products suffer from a wafer edge low yield issue, which is induced by contact opening. A failure mechanism has been proposed that is based on the characteristics of a wafer edge film stack. The large step height at the wafer’s edge leads to worse planarization for the sparse poly-pattern region during the inter-layer dielectric (ILD) chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. A thicker bottom anti-reflect coating (BARC) layer was introduced for a sparse poly-pattern at the wafer edge region. The contact open issue was solved by increasing the break through (BT) time to get a large enough window. Well profile and resistance uniformity were obtained by contact etch recipe optimization.

  • Hydride vapor phase epitaxy for gallium nitride substrate

    Jun Hu, Hongyuan Wei, Shaoyan Yang, Chengming Li, Huijie Li, Xianglin Liu, Lianshan Wang, Zhanguo Wang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Due to the remarkable growth rate compared to another growth methods for gallium nitride (GaN) growth, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is now the only method for mass product GaN substrates. In this review, commercial HVPE systems and the GaN crystals grown by them are demonstrated. This article also illustrates some innovative attempts to develop homebuilt HVPE systems. Finally, the prospects for the further development of HVPE for GaN crystal growth in the future are also discussed.

  • Simulation and application of external quantum efficiency of solar cells based on spectroscopy

    Guanlin Chen, Can Han, Lingling Yan, Yuelong Li, Ying Zhao, Xiaodan Zhang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this study, a method for optical simulation of external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra of solar cells based on spectroscopy is proposed, which is based on the tested transmittance and reflectance spectra. First, to obtain a more accurate information of n, k values, we modified the reported optical constants from the measured reflectance and transmittance spectra. The obtained optical constants of each layer were then collected to simulate the EQE spectra of the device. This method provides a simple, accurate and versatile way to obtain the actual optical constants of different layers. The EQE simulation approach was applied to the flat and textured heterojunctions with intrinsic layers (HIT) solar cells, respectively, which showed a perfect matching between the calculation results and the experimental data. Furthermore, the specific optical losses in different devices were analyzed.

  • A compact two-dimensional analytical model of the electrical characteristics of a triple-material double-gate tunneling FET structure

    C. Usha, Dr. P. Vimala

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    This paper presents a compact two-dimensional analytical device model of surface potential, in addition to electric field of triple-material double-gate (TMDG) tunnel FET. The TMDG TFET device model is developed using a parabolic approximation method in the channel depletion space and a boundary state of affairs across the drain and source. The TMDG TFET device is used to analyze the electrical performance of the TMDG structure in terms of changes in potential voltage, lateral and vertical electric field. Because the TMDG TFET has a simple compact structure, the surface potential is computationally efficient and, therefore, may be utilized to analyze and characterize the gate-controlled devices. Furthermore, using Kane's model, the current across the drain can be modeled. The graph results achieved from this device model are close to the data collected from the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation.

  • Analytical model for the effects of the variation of ferrolectric material parameters on the minimum subthreshold swing in negative capacitance capacitor

    Raheela Rasool, Najeeb-ud-Din, G. M. Rather

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper, we analytically study the relationship between the coercive field, remnant polarization and the thickness of a ferroelectric material, required for the minimum subthreshold swing in a negative capacitance capacitor. The interdependence of the ferroelectric material properties shown in this study is defined by the capacitance matching conditions in the subthreshold region in an NC capacitor. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to find the optimal ferroelectric thickness and channel doping to achieve a minimum subthreshold swing, due to a particular ferroelectric material. Our results have been validated against the numerical and experimental results already available in the literature. Furthermore, we obtain the minimum possible subthreshold swing for different ferroelectric materials used in the gate stack of an NC-FET in the context of a manufacturable semiconductor technology. Our results are presented in the form of a table, which shows the calculated channel doping, ferroelectric thickness and minimum subthreshold for five different ferroelectric materials.

  • Size effect on optical performance of blue light-emitting diodes

    Chang Ge, Jing Li, Guohong Wang, Kang Su, Xingdong Lu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper, size effects on optical performance of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The essential physical mechanism is studied by fabricating LEDs with various sizes of the active area and testing optical characteristics. It is found that Micro-LEDs have better light extracting efficiency and thermal dissipation compared with broad-area LEDs, which is likely due to the small ratio of perimeter and active area. Furthermore, Micro-LEDs are more beneficial for displays due to the stable wavelength under the low pulse width modulation (PWM) current density.

  • Improvement of tunnel compensated quantum well infrared detector

    Chaohui Li, Jun Deng, Weiye Sun, Leilei He, Jianjun Li, Jun Han, Yanli Shi

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    To reduce the difficulty of the epitaxy caused by multiple quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) with tunnel compensation structure, an improved structure is proposed. In the new structure, the superlattices are located between the tunnel junction and the barrier as the infrared absorption region, eliminating the effect of doping concentration on the well width in the original structure. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the new structure are carried out. The experimental sample is a two-cycle device, each cycle contains a tunnel junction, a superlattice infrared absorption region and a thick barrier. The photosurface of the detector is 200 × 200 μm2 and the light is optically coupled by 45° oblique incidence. The results show that the optimal operating voltage of the sample is –1.1 V, the dark current is 2.99 × 10–8 A, and the blackbody detectivity is 1.352 × 108 cm·Hz1/2·W–1 at 77 K. Our experiments show that the new structure can work normally.

  • Recent advances in lithographic fabrication of micro-/nanostructured polydimethylsiloxanes and their soft electronic applications

    Donghwi Cho, Junyong Park, Taehoon Kim, Seokwoo Jeon

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    The intensive development of micro-/nanotechnologies offers a new route to construct sophisticated architectures of emerging soft electronics. Among the many classes of stretchable materials, micro-/nanostructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has emerged as a vital building block based on its merits of flexibility, stretchability, simple processing, and, more importantly, high degrees of freedom of incorporation with other functional materials, including metals and semiconductors. The artificially designed geometries play important roles in achieving the desired mechanical and electrical performances of devices and thus show great potential for applications in the fields of stretchable displays, sensors and actuators as well as in health-monitoring device platforms. Meanwhile, novel lithographic methods to produce stretchable platforms with superb reliability have recently attracted research interest. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the progress regarding micro-/nanostructured PDMS and their promising soft electronic applications. This review is concluded with a brief outlook and further research directions.

  • Deep-ultraviolet integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices: A prospect of the hybridization of group III-nitrides, III-oxides, and two-dimensional materials

    Nasir Alfaraj, Jung-Wook Min, Chun Hong Kang, Abdullah A. Alatawi, Davide Priante, Ram Chandra Subedi, Malleswararao Tangi, Tien Khee Ng, Boon S. Ooi

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Progress in the design and fabrication of ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet group III–nitride optoelectronic devices, based on aluminum gallium nitride and boron nitride and their alloys, and the heterogeneous integration with two-dimensional and oxide-based materials is reviewed. We emphasize wide-bandgap nitride compound semiconductors (i.e., (B, Al, Ga)N) as the deep-ultraviolet materials of interest, and two-dimensional materials, namely graphene, two-dimensional boron nitride, and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, along with gallium oxide, as the hybrid integrated materials. We examine their crystallographic properties and elaborate on the challenges that hinder the realization of efficient and reliable ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet devices. In this article we provide an overview of aluminum nitride, sapphire, and gallium oxide as platforms for deep-ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, in which we criticize the status of sapphire as a platform for efficient deep-ultraviolet devices and detail advancements in device growth and fabrication on aluminum nitride and gallium oxide substrates. A critical review of the current status of deep-ultraviolet light emission and detection materials and devices is provided.

  • Study of the morphology evolution of AlN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrate

    Zhuohui Wu, Jianchang Yan, Yanan Guo, Liang Zhang, Yi Lu, Xuecheng Wei, Junxi Wang, Jinmin Li

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    This study focused on the evolution of growth front about AlN growth on nano-patterned sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The substrate with concave cones was fabricated by nano-imprint lithography and wet etching. Two samples with different epitaxy procedures were fabricated, manifesting as two-dimensional growth mode and three-dimensional growth mode, respectively. The results showed that growth temperature deeply influenced the growth modes and thus played a critical role in the coalescence of AlN. At a relatively high temperature, the AlN epilayer was progressively coalescence and the growth mode was two-dimensional. In this case, we found that the inclined semi-polar facets arising in the process of coalescence were \begin{document}$\left\{ {11\bar 21} \right\}$\end{document} type. But when decreasing the temperature, the \begin{document}$\left\{ {11\bar 22} \right\}$\end{document} semi-polar facets arose, leading to inverse pyramid morphology and obtaining the three-dimensional growth mode. The 3D inverse pyramid AlN structure could be used for realizing 3D semi-polar UV-LED or facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN.

  • Hot electron effects on the operation of potential well barrier diodes

    M. Akura, G. Dunn, M. Missous

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    A study has just been carried out on hot electron effects in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As potential well barrier (PWB) diodes using both Monte Carlo (MC) and drift-diffusion (DD) models of charge transport. We show the operation and behaviour of the diode in terms of electric field, mean electron velocity and potential, mean energy of electrons and Γ-valley population. The MC model predicts lower currents flowing through the diode due to back scattering at anode (collector) and carrier heating at higher bias. At a bias of 1.0 V, the current density obtained from experimental result, MC and DD simulation models are 1.35, 1.12 and 1.77 μA/μm2 respectively. The reduction in current over conventional model, is compensated to a certain extent because less charge settles in the potential well and so the barrier is slightly reduced. The DD model results in higher currents under the same bias and conditions. However, at very low bias specifically, up to 0.3 V without any carrier heating effects, the DD and MC models look pretty similar as experimental results. The significant differences observed in the I–V characteristics of the DD and MC models at higher biases confirm the importance of energy transport when considering these devices.

  • Growth properties of gallium oxide on sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Congyu Hu, Katsuhiko Saito, Tooru Tanaka, Qixin Guo

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Gallium oxide was deposited on a c-plane sapphire substrate by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD). An oxygen radical was generated by an inductive coupled plasma source and the effect of radio frequency (RF) power on growth rate was investigated. A film grown with plasma assistance showed 2.7 times faster growth rate. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analysis showed β-Ga2O3 films grown with plasma assistance at 500 °C. The roughness of the films decreased when the RF power of plasma treatment increased. Transmittance of these films was at least 80% and showed sharp absorption edge at 250 nm which was consistent with data previously reported.

  • Optimization of erase time degradation in 65 nm NOR flash memory chips

    Jing Liu, Yuanlu Xie, Changxing Huo, Hongyang Hu, Kun Zhang, Jinshun Bi, Ming Liu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Reliability issues of flash memory are becoming increasingly significant with the shrinking of technology nodes. Among them, erase time degradation is an issue that draws the attention of academic and industry researchers. In this paper, causes of the " erase time degradation” are exhaustively analyzed, with proposals for its improvement presented, including a low stress program/erase scheme with a staircase pulse and disturb-immune array bias condition. Implementation of the optimized circuit structure is verified in a 128 Mb SPI NOR Flash memory chip, which is fabricated on a SMIC 65 nm ETOX process platform. Testing results indicate a degradation of the sector erase time from 10.67 to 104.9 ms after 105 program/erase cycles, which exhibits an improvement of approximately 100 ms over conventional schemes.

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