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• ## III–V compounds as single photon emitters

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071906

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Single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the key components in quantum information applications. The ideal SPEs emit a single photon or a photon-pair on demand, with high purity and distinguishability. SPEs can also be integrated in photonic circuits for scalable quantum communication and quantum computer systems. Quantum dots made from III–V compounds such as InGaAs or GaN have been found to be particularly attractive SPE sources due to their well studied optical performance and state of the art industrial flexibility in fabrication and integration. Here, we review the optical and optoelectronic properties and growth methods of general SPEs. Subsequently, a brief summary of the latest advantages in III–V compound SPEs and the research progress achieved in the past few years will be discussed. We finally describe frontier challenges and conclude with the latest SPE fabrication science and technology that can open new possibilities for quantum information applications.

• ## Interlayer exchange coupling in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductor multilayer systems

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This paper describes interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) phenomena in ferromagnetic multilayer structures, focusing on the unique IEC features observed in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As-based systems. The dependence of IEC on the structural parameters, such as non-magnetic spacer thickness, number of magnetic layers, and carrier density in the systems has been investigated by using magnetotransport measurements. The samples in the series show both a typical anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR)-like effects indicating realization of both ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) IEC in (Ga,Mn)As-based multilayer structures. The results revealed that the presence of carriers in the non-magnetic spacer is an important factor to realize AFM IEC in this system. The studies further unveil that the IEC occurs over a much longer distance than predicted by current theories, strongly suggesting that the IEC in (Ga,Mn)As-based multilayers is long-range interaction. Due to the long-range nature of IEC in the (Ga,Mn)As-based systems, the next nearest neighbor (NNN) IEC is not ignorable and results in multi-step transitions during magnetization reversal that correspond to diverse spin configurations in the system. The strength of NNN IEC was experimentally determined by measuring minor loops that correspond to magnetization flips in specific (Ga,Mn)As layer in the multilayer system.

• ## Families of magnetic semiconductors — an overview

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/080301

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The interplay of magnetic and semiconducting properties has been in the focus since more than a half of the century. In this introductory article we briefly review the key properties and functionalities of various magnetic semiconductor families, including europium chalcogenides, chromium spinels, dilute magnetic semiconductors, dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors and insulators, mentioning also sources of non-uniformities in the magnetization distribution, accounting for an apparent high Curie temperature ferromagnetism in many systems. Our survey is carried out from today's perspective of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spintronics as well as of the emerging fields of magnetic topological materials and atomically thin 2D layers.

• ## Hydride vapor phase epitaxy for gallium nitride substrate

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Due to the remarkable growth rate compared to another growth methods for Gallium nitride (GaN) growth, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is now the only method for mass product GaN substrates. In this review, commercial HVPE systems and the GaN crystals grown by them are demonstrated. This article also illustrates some innovative attempts to develop homebuilt HVPE systems. Finally, the prospects for the further development of HVPE for GaN crystal growth in the future are also discussed.

• ## Deep-ultraviolet integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices: A prospect of the hybridization of group III-nitrides, III-oxides, and two-dimensional materials

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Progress in the design and fabrication of ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet group III–nitride optoelectronic devices, based on aluminum gallium nitride and boron nitride and their alloys, and the heterogeneous integration with two-dimensional and oxide-based materials is reviewed. We emphasize wide-bandgap nitride compound semiconductors (i.e., (B, Al, Ga)N) as the deep-ultraviolet materials of interest, and two-dimensional materials, namely graphene, two-dimensional boron nitride, and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, along with gallium oxide, as the hybrid integrated materials. We examine their crystallographic properties and elaborate on the challenges that hinder the realization of efficient and reliable ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet devices. In this article we provide an overview of aluminum nitride, sapphire, and gallium oxide as platforms for deep-ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, in which we criticize the status of sapphire as a platform for efficient deep-ultraviolet devices and detail advancements in device growth and fabrication on aluminum nitride and gallium oxide substrates. A critical review of the current status of deep-ultraviolet light emission and detection materials and devices is provided.

• ## Electrically driven single-photon sources

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071904

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Single-photon sources are building blocks for photonic quantum information processes. Of the many single-photon generation schemes, electrically driven single-photon sources have the advantages of realizing monolithic integration of quantum light sources and detectors without optical filtering, thus greatly simplify the integrated quantum photonic circuits. Here, we review recent advances on electrically driven single-photon sources based on solid-state quantum emitters, such as semiconductor epitaxial quantum dots, colloidal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecules, and defect states in diamond, SiC and layered semiconductors. In particular, the merits and drawbacks of each system are discussed. Finally, the article is concluded by discussing the challenges that remain for electrically driven single-photon sources.

• ## Improvement of tunnel compensated quantum well infrared detector

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To reduce the difficulty of the epitaxy caused by multiple quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) with tunnel compensation structure, an improved structure is proposed. In the new structure, the superlattices are located between the tunnel junction and the barrier as the infrared absorption region, eliminating the effect of doping concentration on the well width in the original structure. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the new structure are carried out. The experimental sample is a two-cycle device, each cycle contains a tunnel junction, a superlattice infrared absorption region and a thick barrier. The photosurface of the detector is 200 × 200 μm2 and the light is optically coupled by 45° oblique incidence. The results show that the optimal operating voltage of the sample is –1.1 V, the dark current is 2.99 × 10–8 A, and the blackbody detectivity is 1.352 × 108 cm·Hz1/2·W–1 at 77 K. Our experiments show that the new structure can work normally.

• ## Stable single photon sources in the near C-band range above 400 K

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/072902

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The intrinsic characteristics of single photons became critical issues since the early development of quantum mechanics. Nowadays, acting as flying qubits, single photons are shown to play important roles in the quantum key distribution and quantum networks. Many different single photon sources (SPSs) have been developed. Point defects in silicon carbide (SiC) have been shown to be promising SPS candidates in the telecom range. In this work, we demonstrate a stable SPS in an epitaxial 3C-SiC with the wavelength in the near C-band range, which is very suitable for fiber communications. The observed SPSs show high single photon purity and stable fluorescence at even above 400 K. The lifetimes of the SPSs are found to be almost linearly decreased with the increase of temperature. Since the epitaxial 3C-SiC can be conveniently nanofabricated, these stable near C-band SPSs would find important applications in the integrated photonic devices.

• ## Broadband photonic structures for quantum light sources

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071905

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Quantum light sources serve as one of the key elements in quantum photonic technologies. Such sources made from semiconductor material, e.g., quantum dots (QDs), are particularly appealing because of their great potential of scalability enabled by the modern planar nanofabrication technologies. So far, non-classic light sources based on semiconductor QDs are currently outperforming their counterparts using nonlinear optical process, for instance, parametric down conversion and four-wave mixing. To fully exploring the potential of semiconductor QDs, it is highly desirable to integrate QDs with a variety of photonic nanostructures for better device performance due to the improved light-matter interaction. Among different designs, the photonic nanostructures exhibiting broad operation spectral range is particularly interesting to overcome the QD spectral inhomogeneity and exciton fine structure splitting for the generations of single-photon and entangled photon pair respectively. In this review, we focus on recent progress on high-performance semiconductor quantum light sources that is achieved by integrating single QDs with a variety of broadband photonic nanostructures i.e. waveguide, lens and low-Q cavity.

• ## Telecom wavelength single photon sources

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071901

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Single photon sources are key components for quantum technologies such as quantum communication, computing and metrology. A key challenge towards the realization of global quantum networks are transmission losses in optical fibers. Therefore, single photon sources are required to emit at the low-loss telecom wavelength bands. However, an ideal telecom wavelength single photon source has yet to be discovered. Here, we review the recent progress in realizing such sources. We start with single photon emission based on atomic ensembles and spontaneous parametric down conversion, and then focus on solid-state emitters including semiconductor quantum dots, defects in silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes. In conclusion, some state-of-the-art applications are highlighted.

• ## Utilization of triplet excited states in organic semiconductors

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070402

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• ## Quantum light sources from semiconductor

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070301

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Semiconductor provides a physics-rich environment to host various quantum light sources applicable for quantum information processing. These light sources are capable of deterministic generation of non-classical photon streams that demonstrate antibunching photon statistics, strong indistinguishability, and high-fidelity entanglement. Some of them have even successfully transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we briefly summarize recent efforts and progress in the race towards ideal quantum light sources based on semiconductor materials. The focus of this report will be on group III–V semiconductor quantum dots, defects in wide band-gap materials, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well-positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques.

• ## Giant spin injection into semiconductor and THz pulse emission

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070201

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• ## Review on the quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071903

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The solid state single photon source is fundamental key device for application of quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum information and quantum precious metrology. After years of searching, researchers have found the single photon emitters in zero-dimensional quantum dots (QDs), one-dimensional nanowires, three-dimensional wide bandgap materials, as well as two-dimensional (2D) materials developed recently. Here we will give a brief review on the single photon emitters in 2D van der Waals materials. We will firstly introduce the quantum emitters from various 2D materials and their characteristics. Then we will introduce the electrically driven quantum light in the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)-based light emitting diode (LED). In addition, we will introduce how to tailor the quantum emitters by nanopillars and strain engineering, the entanglement between chiral phonons (CPs) and single photon in monolayer TMDs. Finally, we will give a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of 2D materials-based quantum light sources.

• ## Single photon-chiral phonon entanglement in monolayer WSe2

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070404

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• ## Defect engineering in two-dimensional materials

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070403

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• ## Ultralow-power polymer electro–optic integrated modulators

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070401

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• ## Preface to the Special Issue on Quantum Light Source from Semiconductors

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doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/070101

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• ## Quantum light source devices of In(Ga)As semiconductorself-assembled quantum dots

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A brief introduction of semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) applied in single-photon sources is given. Single QDs in confined quantum optical microcavity systems are reviewed along with their optical properties and coupling characteristics. Subsequently, the recent progresses in In(Ga)As QDs systems are summarized including the preparation of quantum light sources, multiple methods for embedding single QDs into different microcavities and the scalability of single-photon emitting wavelength. Particularly, several In(Ga)As QD single-photon devices are surveyed including In(Ga)As QDs coupling with nanowires, InAs QDs coupling with distributed Bragg reflection microcavity and the In(Ga)As QDs coupling with micropillar microcavities. Furthermore, applications in the field of single QDs technology are illustrated, such as the entangled photon emission by spontaneous parametric down conversion, the single-photon quantum storage, the chip preparation of single-photon sources as well as the single-photon resonance-fluorescence measurements.

• ## Study of the morphology evolution of AlN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrate

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This study focused on the evolution of growth front about AlN growth on nano-patterned sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The substrate with concave cones was fabricated by nano-imprint lithography and wet etching. Two samples with different epitaxy procedures were fabricated, manifesting as two-dimensional growth mode and three-dimensional growth mode, respectively. The results showed that growth temperature deeply influenced the growth modes and thus played a critical role in the coalescence of AlN. At a relatively high temperature, the AlN epilayer was progressively coalescence and the growth mode was two-dimensional. In this case, we found that the inclined semi-polar facets arising in the process of coalescence were \begin{document}$\left\{ {11\bar 21} \right\}$\end{document} type. But when decreasing the temperature, the \begin{document}$\left\{ {11\bar 22} \right\}$\end{document} semi-polar facets arose, leading to inverse pyramid morphology and obtaining the three-dimensional growth mode. The 3D inverse pyramid AlN structure could be used for realizing 3D semi-polar UV-LED or facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN.

• ## A contrivance of 277 nm DUV LD with B0.313Ga0.687N/B0.40Ga0.60N QWs and AlxGa1–xN heterojunction grown on AlN substrate

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In this paper, an ultraviolet C-band laser diode lasing at 277 nm composed of B0.313Ga0.687N/B0.40Ga0.60N QW/QB heterostructure on Mg and Si-doped AlxGa1–xN layers was designed, as well as a lowest reported substitutional accepter and donor concentration up to NA = 5.0 × 1017 cm–3 and ND = 9.0 × 1016 cm–3 for deep ultraviolet lasing was achieved. The structure was assumed to be grown over bulk AlN substrate and operate under a continuous wave at room temperature. Although there is an emphasizing of the suitability for using boron nitride wide band gap in the deep ultraviolet region, there is still a shortage of investigation about the ternary BGaN in aluminum-rich AlGaN alloys. Based on the simulation, an average local gain in quantum wells of 1946 cm–1, the maximum emitted power of 2.4 W, the threshold current of 500 mA, a slope efficiency of 1.91 W/A as well as an average DC resistance for the VI curve of (0.336 Ω) had been observed. Along with an investigation regarding different EBL, designs were included with tapered and inverse tapered structure. Therefore, it had been found a good agreement with the published results for tapered EBL design, with an overweighting for a proposed inverse tapered EBL design.

• ## Hot electron effects on the operation of potential well barrier diodes

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A study has just been carried out on hot electron effects in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As potential well barrier (PWB) diodes using both Monte Carlo (MC) and drift-diffusion (DD) models of charge transport. We show the operation and behaviour of the diode in terms of electric field, mean electron velocity and potential, mean energy of electrons and Γ-valley population. The MC model predicts lower currents flowing through the diode due to back scattering at anode (collector) and carrier heating at higher bias. At a bias of 1.0 V, the current density obtained from experimental result, MC and DD simulation models are 1.35, 1.12 and 1.77 μA/μm2 respectively. The reduction in current over conventional model, is compensated to a certain extent because less charge settles in the potential well and so the barrier is slightly reduced. The DD model results in higher currents under the same bias and conditions. However, at very low bias specifically, up to 0.3 V without any carrier heating effects, the DD and MC models look pretty similar as experimental results. The significant differences observed in the I–V characteristics of the DD and MC models at higher biases confirm the importance of energy transport when considering these devices.

• ## Growth properties of gallium oxide on sapphire substrate by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

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Gallium oxide was deposited on a c-plane sapphire substrate by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD). An oxygen radical was generated by an inductive coupled plasma source and the effect of radio frequency (RF) power on growth rate was investigated. A film grown with plasma assistance showed 2.7 times faster growth rate. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analysis showed β-Ga2O3 films grown with plasma assistance at 500 °C. The roughness of the films decreased when the RF power of plasma treatment increased. Transmittance of these films was at least 80% and showed sharp absorption edge at 250 nm which was consistent with data previously reported.

• ## Optimization of erase time degradation in 65 nm NOR flash memory chips

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Reliability issues of flash memory are becoming increasingly significant with the shrinking of technology nodes. Among them, erase time degradation is an issue that draws the attention of academic and industry researchers. In this paper, causes of the " erase time degradation” are exhaustively analyzed, with proposals for its improvement presented, including a low stress program/erase scheme with a staircase pulse and disturb-immune array bias condition. Implementation of the optimized circuit structure is verified in a 128 Mb SPI NOR Flash memory chip, which is fabricated on a SMIC 65 nm ETOX process platform. Testing results indicate a degradation of the sector erase time from 10.67 to 104.9 ms after 105 program/erase cycles, which exhibits an improvement of approximately 100 ms over conventional schemes.