Single photon sources are key components for quantum technologies such as quantum communication, computing and metrology. A key challenge towards the realization of global quantum networks are transmission losses in optical fibers. Therefore, single photon sources are required to emit at the low-loss telecom wavelength bands. However, an ideal telecom wavelength single photon source has yet to be discovered. Here, we review the recent progress in realizing such sources. We start with single photon emission based on atomic ensembles and spontaneous parametric down conversion, and then focus on solid-state emitters including semiconductor quantum dots, defects in silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes. In conclusion, some state-of-the-art applications are highlighted.
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071901Xin Cao, Michael Zopf, Fei Ding. Telecom wavelength single photon sources[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(7): 071901. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071901.
X Cao, M Zopf, F Ding, Telecom wavelength single photon sources[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071901. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071901.Export: BibTex EndNote
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071903Shuliang Ren, Qinghai Tan, Jun Zhang. Review on the quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(7): 071903. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071903.
S L Ren, Q H Tan, J Zhang, Review on the quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071903. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071903.Export: BibTex EndNote
The solid state single photon source is fundamental key device for application of quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum information and quantum precious metrology. After years of searching, researchers have found the single photon emitters in zero-dimensional quantum dots (QDs), one-dimensional nanowires, three-dimensional wide bandgap materials, as well as two-dimensional (2D) materials developed recently. Here we will give a brief review on the single photon emitters in 2D van der Waals materials. We will firstly introduce the quantum emitters from various 2D materials and their characteristics. Then we will introduce the electrically driven quantum light in the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)-based light emitting diode (LED). In addition, we will introduce how to tailor the quantum emitters by nanopillars and strain engineering, the entanglement between chiral phonons (CPs) and single photon in monolayer TMDs. Finally, we will give a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of 2D materials-based quantum light sources.
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071904Yating Lin, Yongzheng Ye, Wei Fang. Electrically driven single-photon sources[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(7): 071904. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071904.
Y T Lin, Y Z Ye, W Fang, Electrically driven single-photon sources[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071904. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071904.Export: BibTex EndNote
Single-photon sources are building blocks for photonic quantum information processes. Of the many single-photon generation schemes, electrically driven single-photon sources have the advantages of realizing monolithic integration of quantum light sources and detectors without optical filtering, thus greatly simplify the integrated quantum photonic circuits. Here, we review recent advances on electrically driven single-photon sources based on solid-state quantum emitters, such as semiconductor epitaxial quantum dots, colloidal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecules, and defect states in diamond, SiC and layered semiconductors. In particular, the merits and drawbacks of each system are discussed. Finally, the article is concluded by discussing the challenges that remain for electrically driven single-photon sources.
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071905Zhe He, Jiawei Yang, Lidan Zhou, Yan Chen, Tianming Zhao, Ying Yu, Jin Liu. Broadband photonic structures for quantum light sources[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(7): 071905. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071905.
Z He, J W Yang, L D Zhou, Y Chen, T M Zhao, Y Yu, J Liu, Broadband photonic structures for quantum light sources[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071905. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071905.Export: BibTex EndNote
Quantum light sources serve as one of the key elements in quantum photonic technologies. Such sources made from semiconductor material, e.g., quantum dots (QDs), are particularly appealing because of their great potential of scalability enabled by the modern planar nanofabrication technologies. So far, non-classic light sources based on semiconductor QDs are currently outperforming their counterparts using nonlinear optical process, for instance, parametric down conversion and four-wave mixing. To fully exploring the potential of semiconductor QDs, it is highly desirable to integrate QDs with a variety of photonic nanostructures for better device performance due to the improved light-matter interaction. Among different designs, the photonic nanostructures exhibiting broad operation spectral range is particularly interesting to overcome the QD spectral inhomogeneity and exciton fine structure splitting for the generations of single-photon and entangled photon pair respectively. In this review, we focus on recent progress on high-performance semiconductor quantum light sources that is achieved by integrating single QDs with a variety of broadband photonic nanostructures i.e. waveguide, lens and low-Q cavity.
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071906Xu Wang, Lei Xu, Yun Jiang, Zhouyang Yin, Christopher C. S. Chan, Chaoyong Deng, Robert A. Taylor. III–V compounds as single photon emitters[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(7): 071906. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071906.
X Wang, L Xu, Y Jiang, Z Y Yin, C C S Chan, C Y Deng, A Taylor, III–V compounds as single photon emitters[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071906. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071906.Export: BibTex EndNote
Single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the key components in quantum information applications. The ideal SPEs emit a single photon or a photon-pair on demand, with high purity and distinguishability. SPEs can also be integrated in photonic circuits for scalable quantum communication and quantum computer systems. Quantum dots made from III–V compounds such as InGaAs or GaN have been found to be particularly attractive SPE sources due to their well studied optical performance and state of the art industrial flexibility in fabrication and integration. Here, we review the optical and optoelectronic properties and growth methods of general SPEs. Subsequently, a brief summary of the latest advantages in III–V compound SPEs and the research progress achieved in the past few years will be discussed. We finally describe frontier challenges and conclude with the latest SPE fabrication science and technology that can open new possibilities for quantum information applications.
J. Semicond. 2019, 40 (6): 061001
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061001Ziqi Zhou, Yu Cui, Ping-Heng Tan, Xuelu Liu, Zhongming Wei. Optical and electrical properties of two-dimensional anisotropic materials[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(6): 061001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061001.
Z Q Zhou, Y Cui, P H Tan, X L Liu, Z M Wei, Optical and electrical properties of two-dimensional anisotropic materials[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(6): 061001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061001.Export: BibTex EndNote
Two-dimensional (2D) anisotropic materials, such as B-P, B-As, GeSe, GeAs, ReSe2, KP15 and their hybrid systems, exhibit unique crystal structures and extraordinary anisotropy. This review presents a comprehensive comparison of various 2D anisotropic crystals as well as relevant FETs and photodetectors, especially on their particular anisotropy in optical and electrical properties. First, the structure of typical 2D anisotropic crystal as well as the analysis of structural anisotropy is provided. Then, recent researches on anisotropic Raman spectra are reviewed. Particularly, a brief measurement principle of Raman spectra under three typical polarized measurement configurations is introduced. Finally, recent progress on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of FETs and polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on 2D anisotropic materials is summarized for the comparison between different 2D anisotropic materials. Beyond the high response speed, sensitivity and on/off ratio, these 2D anisotropic crystals exhibit highly conduction ratio and dichroic ratio which can be applied in terms of polarization sensors, polarization spectroscopy imaging, optical radar and remote sensing.
J. Semicond. 2019, 40 (6): 061002
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061002Yue Li, Ming Gong, Hualing Zeng. Atomically thin α-In2Se3: an emergent two-dimensional room temperature ferroelectric semiconductor[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(6): 061002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061002.
Y Li, M Gong, H L Zeng, Atomically thin α-In2Se3: an emergent two-dimensional room temperature ferroelectric semiconductor[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(6): 061002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061002.Export: BibTex EndNote
Room temperature ferroelectric thin films are the key element of high-density nonvolatile memories in modern electronics. However, with the further miniaturization of the electronic devices beyond the Moore’s law, conventional ferroelectrics suffer great challenge arising from the critical thickness effect, where the ferroelectricity is unstable if the film thickness is reduced to nanometer or single atomic layer limit. Two-dimensional (2D) materials, thanks to their stable layered structure, saturate interfacial chemistry, weak interlayer couplings, and the benefit of preparing stable ultra-thin film at 2D limit, are promising for exploring 2D ferroelectricity and related device applications. Therefore, it provides an effective approach to overcome the limitation in conventional ferroelectrics with the study of 2D ferroelectricity in van der Waals (vdW) materials. In this review article, we briefly introduce recent progresses on 2D ferroelectricity in layered vdW materials. We will highlight the study on atomically thin α-In2Se3, which is an emergent ferroelectric semiconductor with the coupled in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity. Furthermore, two prototype ferroelectric devices based on ferroelectric α-In2Se3 will also be reviewed.
Synthesis, properties, and applications of large-scale two-dimensional materials by polymer-assisted deposition
J. Semicond. 2019, 40 (6): 061003
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061003Hongtao Ren, Yachao Liu, Lei Zhang, Kai Liu. Synthesis, properties, and applications of large-scale two-dimensional materials by polymer-assisted deposition[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(6): 061003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061003.
H T Ren, Y C Liu, L Zhang, K Liu, Synthesis, properties, and applications of large-scale two-dimensional materials by polymer-assisted deposition[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(6): 061003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/061003.Export: BibTex EndNote
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable attention because of their novel and tunable electronic, optical, ferromagnetic, and chemical properties. Compared to mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition, polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) is more suitable for mass production of 2D materials owing to its good reproducibility and reliability. In this review, we summarize the recent development of PAD on syntheses of 2D materials. First, we introduce principles and processing steps of PAD. Second, 2D materials, including graphene, MoS2, and MoS2/glassy-graphene heterostructures, are presented to illustrate the power of PAD and provide readers with the opportunity to assess the method. Last, we discuss the future prospects and challenges in this research field. This review provides a novel technique for preparing 2D layered materials and may inspire new applications of 2D layered materials.
J. Semicond. 2019, 40 (4): 041901
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/4/041901Haizhen Wang, Chen Fang, Hongmei Luo, Dehui Li. Recent progress of the optoelectronic properties of 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(4): 041901. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/4/041901.
H Z Wang, C Fang, H M Luo, D H Li, Recent progress of the optoelectronic properties of 2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(4): 041901. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/4/041901.Export: BibTex EndNote
Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have recently attracted attention due to their layered nature, naturally formed quantum well structure, large exciton binding energy and especially better long-term environmental stability compared with their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts. In this report, we present a brief overview of the recent progress of the optoelectronic applications in 2D perovskites. The layer number dependent physical properties of 2D perovskites will first be introduced and then the different synthetic approaches to achieve 2D perovskites with different morphologies will be discussed. The optical, optoelectronic properties and self-trapped states in 2D perovskites will be described, which are indispensable for designing the new device structures with novel functionalities and improving the device performance. Subsequently, a brief summary of the advantages and the current research status of the 2D perovskite-based heterostructures will be illustrated. Finally, a perspective of 2D perovskite materials is given toward their material synthesis and novel device applications.
J. Semicond. 2019, 40 (1): 011801
doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011801H. F. Mohamed, Changtai Xia, Qinglin Sai, Huiyuan Cui, Mingyan Pan, Hongji Qi. Growth and fundamentals of bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(1): 011801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011801.
H F Mohamed, C T Xia, Q L Sai, H Y Cui, M Y Pan, H J Qi, Growth and fundamentals of bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(1): 011801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011801.Export: BibTex EndNote
The rapid development of bulk β-Ga2O3 crystals has attracted much attention to their use as ultra-wide bandgap materials for next-generation power devices owing to its large bandgap (~ 4.9 eV) and large breakdown electric field of about 8 MV/cm. Low cost and high quality of large β-Ga2O3 single-crystal substrates can be attained by melting growth techniques widely used in the industry. In this paper, we first present an overview of the properties of β-Ga2O3 crystals in bulk form. We then describe the various methods for producing bulk β-Ga2O3 crystals and their applications. Finally, we will present a future perspective of the research in the area in the area of single crystal growth.
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