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Electrically driven single-photon sources

Yating Lin , Yongzheng Ye and Wei Fang ,

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Abstract: Single-photon sources are building blocks for photonic quantum information processes. Of the many single-photon generation schemes, electrically driven single-photon sources have the advantages of realizing monolithic integration of quantum light sources and detectors without optical filtering, thus greatly simplify the integrated quantum photonic circuits. Here, we review recent advances on electrically driven single-photon sources based on solid-state quantum emitters, such as semiconductor epitaxial quantum dots, colloidal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecules, and defect states in diamond, SiC and layered semiconductors. In particular, the merits and drawbacks of each system are discussed. Finally, the article is concluded by discussing the challenges that remain for electrically driven single-photon sources.

Key words: single photon sourceselectrically drivenintegrated quantum photoncs

Abstract: Single-photon sources are building blocks for photonic quantum information processes. Of the many single-photon generation schemes, electrically driven single-photon sources have the advantages of realizing monolithic integration of quantum light sources and detectors without optical filtering, thus greatly simplify the integrated quantum photonic circuits. Here, we review recent advances on electrically driven single-photon sources based on solid-state quantum emitters, such as semiconductor epitaxial quantum dots, colloidal quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecules, and defect states in diamond, SiC and layered semiconductors. In particular, the merits and drawbacks of each system are discussed. Finally, the article is concluded by discussing the challenges that remain for electrically driven single-photon sources.

Key words: single photon sourceselectrically drivenintegrated quantum photoncs



References:

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Ward M, Farrow T, See P, et al. Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90(6), 063512

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Deshpande S, Heo J, Das A, et al. Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 1675

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Deshpande S, Frost T, Hazari A, et al. Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single In- GaN/GaN quantum dot. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105(14), 141109

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Lin X, Dai X, Pu C, et al. Electrically-driven single-photon sources based on colloidal quantum dots with near-optimal antibunching at room temperature. Nat Commun, 2017, 8(1), 1132

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Khasminskaya S, Pyatkov F, S?owik K, et al. Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source. Nat Photon, 2016, 10(11), 727

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Reischle M, Beirne G, Schulz W M, et al. Electrically pumped single-photon emission in the visible spectral range up to 80 K. Opt Express, 2008, 16(17), 12771

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Schlehahn A, Thoma A, Munnelly P, et al. An electrically driven cavity-enhanced source of indistinguishable photons with 61% overall efficiency. APL Photon, 2016, 1(1), 011301

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Deshpande S, Bhattacharya P. An electrically driven quantum dot-in-nanowire visible single photon source operating up to 150 K. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(24), 241117

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Quitsch W, Kümmell T, Gust A, et al. Electrically driven single photon emission from a CdSe/ZnSSe single quantum dot at 200 K. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105(9), 091102

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Michler P, Imamoglu A, Mason M, et al. Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature. Nature, 2000, 406(6799), 968

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H?gele A, Galland C, Winger M, et al. Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube. Phys Rev Lett, 2008, 100(21), 217401

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Sild O, Haller K. Zero-phonon lines: and spectral hole burning in spectroscopy and photochemistry. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012

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Lounis B, Moerner W E. Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature, 2000, 407(6803), 491

[40]

Nothaft M, H?hla S, Jelezko F, et al. Electrically driven photon antibunching from a single molecule at room temperature. Nat Commun, 2012, 3, 628

[41]

Doherty M W, Manson N B, Delaney P, et al. The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond. Phys Rep, 2013, 528(1), 1

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Khramtsov I A, Agio M, Fedyanin D Y. Dynamics of single-photon emission from electrically pumped color centers. Phys Rev Appl, 2017, 8(2), 024031

[43]

?zgür ?, Alivov Y I, Liu C, et al. A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J Appl Phys, 2005, 98(4), 11

[44]

Choi S, Berhane A M, Gentle A, et al. Electroluminescence from localized defects in zinc oxide: toward electrically driven single photon sources at room temperature. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2015, 7(10), 5619

[45]

Khramtsov I A, Vyshnevyy A A, Fedyanin D Y. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide. npj Quantum Inform, 2018, 4(1), 15

[46]

Manzeli S, Ovchinnikov D, Pasquier D, et al. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2(8), 17033

[47]

Koperski M, Nogajewski K, Arora A, et al. Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 503

[48]

Chakraborty C, Kinnischtzke L, Goodfellow K M, et al. Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semicon- ductor. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 507

[49]

He Y M, Clark G, Schaibley J R, et al. Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 497

[50]

Palacios-berraquero C, Barbone M, Kara D M, et al. Atomically thin quantum light-emitting diodes. Nat Commun, 2016, 7, 12978

[51]

Tran T T, Bray K, Ford M J, et al. Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Nat Nano, 2016, 11(1), 37

[52]

Conterio M, Sk?ld N, Ellis D, et al. A quantum dot single photon source driven by resonant electrical injection. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(16), 162108

[1]

Nielsen M A, Chuang I L. Quantum computation and quantum information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010

[2]

Sun Q C, Mao Y L, Chen S J, et al. Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network. Nat Photon, 2016, 10(10), 671

[3]

O’brien J L. Optical quantum computing. Science, 2007, 318(5856), 1567

[4]

Arcari M, S?llner I, Javadi A, et al. Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide. Phys Rev Lett, 2014, 113(9), 093603

[5]

Carolan J, Harrold C, Sparrow C, et al. Universal linear optics. Science, 2015, 349(6249), 711

[6]

Wang J, Paesani S, Ding Y, et al. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics. Science, 2018, 360(6386), 285

[7]

Smith B J, Kundys D, Thomas-Peter N, et al. Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits. Opt Express, 2009, 17(16), 13516

[8]

Takesue H, Matsuda N, Kuramochi E, et al. An on-chip coupled resonator optical waveguide single-photon buffer. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 2725

[9]

Pernice W H, Schuck C, Minaeva O, et al. High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits. Nat Commun, 2012, 3, 1325

[10]

Sprengers J, Gaggero A, Sahin D, et al. Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 99(18), 181110

[11]

Senellart P, Solomon G, White A. High-performance semiconductor quantum-dot single-photon sources. Nat Nano, 2017, 12(11), 1026

[12]

Yuan Z, Kardynal B E, Stevenson R M, et al. Electrically driven single-photon source. Science, 2002, 295(5552), 102

[13]

Ward M, Farrow T, See P, et al. Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90(6), 063512

[14]

Deshpande S, Heo J, Das A, et al. Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 1675

[15]

Deshpande S, Frost T, Hazari A, et al. Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single In- GaN/GaN quantum dot. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105(14), 141109

[16]

Nowak A, Portalupi S, Giesz V, et al. Deterministic and electrically tunable bright single-photon source. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 3240

[17]

Heindel T, Schneider C, Lermer M, et al. Electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar single photon source with 34% overall efficiency. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96(1), 011107

[18]

Lin X, Dai X, Pu C, et al. Electrically-driven single-photon sources based on colloidal quantum dots with near-optimal antibunching at room temperature. Nat Commun, 2017, 8(1), 1132

[19]

Khasminskaya S, Pyatkov F, S?owik K, et al. Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source. Nat Photon, 2016, 10(11), 727

[20]

Zhang L, Yu Y J, Chen L G, et al. Electrically driven single-photon emission from an isolated single molecule. Nat Commun, 2017, 8(1), 580

[21]

Lohrmann A, Pezzagna S, Dobrinets I, et al. Diamond based light-emitting diode for visible single-photon emission at room temperature. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 99(25), 251106

[22]

Mizuochi N, Makino T, Kato H, et al. Electrically driven single-photon source at room temperature in diamond. Nat Photon, 2012, 6(5), 299

[23]

Doi Y, Makino T, Kato H, et al. Deterministic electrical charge-state initialization of single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Phys Rev X, 2014, 4(1), 011057

[24]

Lohrmann A, Iwamoto N, Bodrog Z, et al. Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 7783

[25]

Glauber R J. The quantum theory of optical coherence. Phys Rev, 1963, 130(6), 2529

[26]

Brown R H, Twiss R Q, surName g. Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light-i. basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 1957, 242(1230), 300

[27]

Wang H, Duan Z C, Li Y H, et al. Near-transform-limited single photons from an efficient solid-state quantum emitter. Phys Rev Lett, 2016, 116(21), 213601

[28]

Hong C K, Ou Z Y, Mandel L. Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference. Phys Rev Lett, 1987, 59(18), 2044

[29]

Imamog A, Yamamoto Y, et al. Turnstile device for heralded single photons: Coulomb blockade of electron and hole tunnel- ing in quantum confined p–i–n heterojunctions. Phys Rev Lett, 1994, 72(2), 210

[30]

Gschrey M, Gericke F, Schü?ler A, et al. In situ electron-beam lithography of deterministic single-quantum-dot mesa-structures using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(25), 251113

[31]

Somaschi N, Giesz V, De Santis L, et al. Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10(5), 340

[32]

Reischle M, Beirne G, Schulz W M, et al. Electrically pumped single-photon emission in the visible spectral range up to 80 K. Opt Express, 2008, 16(17), 12771

[33]

Schlehahn A, Thoma A, Munnelly P, et al. An electrically driven cavity-enhanced source of indistinguishable photons with 61% overall efficiency. APL Photon, 2016, 1(1), 011301

[34]

Deshpande S, Bhattacharya P. An electrically driven quantum dot-in-nanowire visible single photon source operating up to 150 K. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(24), 241117

[35]

Quitsch W, Kümmell T, Gust A, et al. Electrically driven single photon emission from a CdSe/ZnSSe single quantum dot at 200 K. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105(9), 091102

[36]

Michler P, Imamoglu A, Mason M, et al. Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature. Nature, 2000, 406(6799), 968

[37]

H?gele A, Galland C, Winger M, et al. Photon antibunching in the photoluminescence spectra of a single carbon nanotube. Phys Rev Lett, 2008, 100(21), 217401

[38]

Sild O, Haller K. Zero-phonon lines: and spectral hole burning in spectroscopy and photochemistry. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012

[39]

Lounis B, Moerner W E. Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature. Nature, 2000, 407(6803), 491

[40]

Nothaft M, H?hla S, Jelezko F, et al. Electrically driven photon antibunching from a single molecule at room temperature. Nat Commun, 2012, 3, 628

[41]

Doherty M W, Manson N B, Delaney P, et al. The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond. Phys Rep, 2013, 528(1), 1

[42]

Khramtsov I A, Agio M, Fedyanin D Y. Dynamics of single-photon emission from electrically pumped color centers. Phys Rev Appl, 2017, 8(2), 024031

[43]

?zgür ?, Alivov Y I, Liu C, et al. A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J Appl Phys, 2005, 98(4), 11

[44]

Choi S, Berhane A M, Gentle A, et al. Electroluminescence from localized defects in zinc oxide: toward electrically driven single photon sources at room temperature. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2015, 7(10), 5619

[45]

Khramtsov I A, Vyshnevyy A A, Fedyanin D Y. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide. npj Quantum Inform, 2018, 4(1), 15

[46]

Manzeli S, Ovchinnikov D, Pasquier D, et al. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat Rev Mater, 2017, 2(8), 17033

[47]

Koperski M, Nogajewski K, Arora A, et al. Single photon emitters in exfoliated WSe2 structures. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 503

[48]

Chakraborty C, Kinnischtzke L, Goodfellow K M, et al. Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semicon- ductor. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 507

[49]

He Y M, Clark G, Schaibley J R, et al. Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors. Nat Nano, 2015, 10(6), 497

[50]

Palacios-berraquero C, Barbone M, Kara D M, et al. Atomically thin quantum light-emitting diodes. Nat Commun, 2016, 7, 12978

[51]

Tran T T, Bray K, Ford M J, et al. Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Nat Nano, 2016, 11(1), 37

[52]

Conterio M, Sk?ld N, Ellis D, et al. A quantum dot single photon source driven by resonant electrical injection. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(16), 162108

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Y T Lin, Y Z Ye, W Fang, Electrically driven single-photon sources[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(7): 071904. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/7/071904.

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Manuscript received: 01 July 2018 Manuscript revised: Online: Accepted Manuscript: 01 July 2019 Uncorrected proof: 01 July 2019

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